Tag Archives: Making

Isolated Scholars: Making Bricks, Not Shaping Policy

Isolated Scholars: Making Bricks, Not Shaping Policy
It is time to build the wall from the large and growing body of research in the physical and social sciences on a host of issues: not just climate change, but also nanotechnology, nuclear power, autism and vaccines, GMOs, and more. Academic scholarship …
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Image courtesy authors of the study
Scientists from the Kurchatov Institute, MIPT, the University of Parma (Italy), Moscow State University, and Saint Petersburg State University have created a neural network based on polymeric memristors – devices that can potentially be used to build …
Read more on Nanotechnology News (press release)

Medical Nanotechnology: 3 Areas of Research
Proponents of “bigger is better” may want to think again, particularly when it comes to nanotechnology. That's because advancements in nanotechnology could also mean advancements in the medical devices market. Nanotechnology is proving to be a viable …
Read more on Investing News Network (press release) (registration) (blog)

Making High Capacity Memories A Reality

In to day’s Details Technologies Globe, shrinkage in size but with much more storage of data has turn into the craze. This quest for shrinkage, coupled with the need to have maximum capacity for storage information in challenging disks, have prompted scientists to pursue methods in enhancing the ‘readout’ function . Portable computer systems, musical players, and so forth. all require hard disks exactly where data is stored, densely packed in the type of distinct magnetic areas.

The present day size of data in a challenging disk, is as high as one terabyte, (1 thousand billion bytes). As the disks shrink smaller and smaller sized,the magnetic location also shrinks, thereby the magnetic field of every single byte is made weaker and tougher to read. Hence, this issue prompted researchers to devise methods to boost the ‘read out function’ significantly. Efforts for improving this had began in late 1990 and had been continued.

The present day ‘readout function’, is based on a physical effect, on which two scientists had started operating decade ago. The Frenchman, Mr Albert Fert and a German, by name, Mr Peter Gruenberg, simultaneously and independently discovered ‘ Giant Magneto Resistance ‘ (GMR).&#13For this function they got the Nobel Prize for Physics this year.


Original ‘ readout’ function, was based on the reality that alterations in the magnetic field in the induction coils induces existing through the coil. Though this is nevertheless utilized for writing info to the disk, for ‘readout function’ , magneto resistance proved greater. The GMR technology can thus be deemed as the very first major application of nanotechnology.


Electrical energy in the form of electrons passes freely via a metal conductor and straighter the path, greater will be the conductance. Resistance occurs due to scattering of electrons. In magnetic material, this is influenced by the direction of magnetization. In GMR, the strong partnership amongst resistance and magnetization arises due to the intrinsic rotation referred to as spin. Most of the spins take place in the same direction in magnetic supplies. Nonetheless, in a smaller quantity the spin occurs in the opposite direction.This imbalance causes magnetization and scattering of electrons, in the inter faces amongst components.

Assume a layer of non magnetic metal sand witched in between two layers of magnetic metals. Within the material and particularly, at the interface among the magnetic and non magnetic material, electrons with distinct spins scatter differently. Take into account the case exactly where the electron scatters much more when their spin is anti parallel to the path of magnetisation.This assumes that the resistance for these electrons will be more than in the case, if their spin had been parallel to the path of magnetisation. When electrons enter the magnetic material they all scatter to the exact same degree, irrespective of their path of spin.

At the second interface,in the final layer of magnetic materials, the electrons with anti parallel spin will scatter much more than those with parallel spin. In layers where both are magnetized, most electrons will have a parallel spin and will pass by means of the structure effortlessly resulting in low resistance. If on the other hand, if the magnetisation of the two layers are opposite, this will result exactly where all electrons having an anti parallel spin in a single of the two layers, with nil electron movement and total resistance.

In a ‘readout head scanning a challenging disk, the magnetisation of the two layers will be 1 parallel and the other anti parallel. This will outcome in variation in resistance and the present passing by means of the readout head . If the existing leaving the head signifies a signal, then a high current might be signified as binary 1 and low present as zero. Scientists rapidly realized what ‘ manometer sized’ layers can supply and began experiments in this field.

Mr Albert and his colleagues and similarly the German Scientist , Mr Peter Gruenberg, continued their experiments in this region. Their efforts confirmed magneto dependent modify in resistances in materials, although the range obtained by every single was diverse. Even so, this confirmed the standard theory of adjust in resistance based on magnetisation. But still to utilize this on a industrial basis, a new technologies referred to as ‘Sputtering’ technologies, had to be utilized.


As a spin off of the GMR technology ‘Spinitronics ‘ took shape. This makes use of electrically insulated material among the two layers of a magnetic metal. Generally no existing passes through this insulated layers. However, if it is thin sufficient, some electrons will sneak through, using a quantum mechanical impact ‘tunneling’, and hence this is referred to as, Tunneling Magneto Resistance, (TMR.). Even larger variations in resistance could be accomplished by very weak magnetic fields.


One more spin off of this is the new technologies magnetic operating memory known as ‘MRAM’. In computer systems, apart from the hard disk, we demand a functioning memory named ‘RAM’ (Random Access Memory) which, unless stored in a tough disk, run the danger of losing the data. This new technology could have the potential to create into a ‘universal memory’, taking the spot of each ‘RAM’ and the difficult disk. Hence this might prove extremely helpful for adaptation in almost everything from kitchen stove to automobiles.

The discovery of GMR effects, followed by ‘ Spinitronics ‘ completely illustrates how fundamental science and new technologies inter wine and reinforce every single other.

Adapted from an article in “The Hindu, Section ” Science and Technology,” entitled Nobel Prize in PHYSICS.


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